This database consists of several subsets one of which was collected by volunteering speakers wearing small portable recording devices and recording their own spoken communication during their daily activities (home, work, school) for a relatively long period of time (e.g. Documentation is an important part of software engineering. Another problem might be the simple lack of a (commonly known) written form of the language making it impossible to design a reading task. � �h�� &%%����8 4s�`H�pb%%����`(��K���@&AU�)% f �� c(�B� � dE0�x�E�X ,�� �Ͱ�!���#f5�����0�1�d��d��ɤ�d���Ǹu�5Ɨ�\6��b0c�ΐ��������$��Q���*2���?\z An example for such a text is Aesop’s fable: The North Wind and the Sun commonly used by phoneticians and phonologists to illustrate the sound of languages (cf. These linguistic practices and traditions are manifested by [3] [4]: Based on these definitions, the aim of documentation is not just recording the sounds of language as such, but recording the sounds of language as communicative events [3] [5]. Backup copies can be stored on CD, DVD, blu ray discs, local or remote hard disks or small-sized portable storage media such as pendrives or memory cards. Remember the signatures! [3] Himmelmann, N. P. (1998). Proceedings of Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC), Las Palmas, Spain. Condenser microphones are often used in radio and TV studios, they are characterized by higher sensitivity and can capture a variety of complex sounds, including subtle background noises. ... What's new with the service and documentation; Plan your app with intents and entities. For the needs of computer processing, the Computer Readable Phonetic Alphabet (SAMPA) [22] is also used. 0000006712 00000 n Listen to the recordings of The North Wind and the Sun Aesop’s fable in three languages. [23] The Endangered Languages Archive at SOAS, London http://elar.soas.ac.uk/ 0000002636 00000 n Nijmegen: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics. GTP – grapheme-to-phoneme converters automatically transforming orthographic texts to phonetic transcriptions, ASR – automatic speech recognition tools). Which researchers besides linguists were involved in the documentation or could be interested in the data? It is worth remembering, however, that in order to make further analyses and descriptions easier we ought to work on the data thoughtfully and carefully rather than to “(mindlessly) collect heaps of data without any concern for analysis and structure”, as Nikolaus Himmelman put it [10]. An example record from the Polish Heritage Database: transliteration, orthographic script, English translation, and phonetic transcription for a text in Polish Yiddish (find more at: inne-jezyki.amu.edu.pl/). What could be done to resolve a conflict of interests between the researchers and the community? Think of 2 or 3 recording locations and scenarios for a recording session. Developer resources for LUIS. “Paralingua – a new speech corpus for the studies of paralinguistic features”, in Vargas-Sierra, Ch. Mutual location of objects in space. Of course translating the text to some languages may be difficult because not all words or structures always have their direct equivalents in the language. UNESCO’s “Levels of endangerment” discussed in Chapter 8 of the Book of Knowledge). A summary of the changes between Go releases. own language documentation and revitalization projects. When you download the pictures usually you also obtain suggested instructions for the recording scenario and terms of use (see for example materials for route description elicitation: fieldmanuals.mpi.nl/volumes/1993/route-description-elicitation/ or a body colouring task: fieldmanuals.mpi.nl/volumes/2003-1/body-colouring-task). 0000005408 00000 n However, a potential drawback in this case might be related to the fact that the recordings took place in varying locations characterized by unpredictable noise levels and thus cannot be fully controlled for quality. Noise can be controlled and minimized in the studio, and we may precisely adjust the types and positions of microphones or video cameras in advance, so that even the slightest details will be appropriately recorded. trailer x�b```�hV�~a��1�0pL`�``hadKNr`�a�`4���U�\Y{��5?,o�m���p�(c'��O�#�Z@M! Suggest corrections and new documentation via GitHub. Language documentation comprises the collection, processing and archiving of linguistic data – for example, texts, word lists, recordings of conversations, videos where people tell fairy tales, etc. [25] Endangered Languages website: http://www.endangeredlanguages.com/ On the other hand, recording speech outside the studio usually means difficulties in achieving good quality, even if we use excellent recording devices. Think of a recording scenario that would possibly enable producing good quality audio/video recordings of spoken communication of (a) children, and (b) elderly speakers, without losing too much of the spontaneity of speech. The idea behind a Language Serveris to provide the language-specific smarts inside a server that can communicate with development tooling over a protocol that enables inter-process communication. Please pick a language from the list below. [24]. xref Find a list of these projects here: dobes.mpi.nl/projects. Pay attention to the types of information provided (descriptions of speakers, culture, geography, sound or text resources in the language). Language Understanding (LUIS) is a cloud-based conversational AI service that applies custom machine-learning intelligence to a user's conversational, natural language text to predict overall meaning, and pull out relevant, detailed information. One of the most important archives for endangered languages is the DOBES (Dokumentation Bedrohter Sprachen) archive dobes.mpi.nl/ – an Internet database of complex documentation for many endangered languages. Listen to the following recording of utterances in the language Teop: click here Documenting endangered languages. [2] The Linguists: www.pbs.org/thelinguists What would be your first steps? 0000004831 00000 n In the preliminary definition of language documentation given above in this chapter, we mentioned three elements of language documentation: collecting (recording, taking pictures, gathering written documents, etc. fieldmanuals.mpi.nl/volumes/2003-1/body-colouring-task, http://ifl.phil-fak.uni-koeln.de/fileadmin/linguistik/asw/pdf/Publis/1998a.pdf, inne-jezyki.amu.edu.pl/Frontend/TextSource/Details/40, http://www.isfas.uni-kiel.de/de/linguistik/forschung/das_kiel_korpus, http://www.pearstories.org/docu/ThePearStories.htm, https://www.langsci.ucl.ac.uk/ipa/handbook.html, http://www.alaska.org/detail/russian-old-believer-communities, http://www.langsci.ucl.ac.uk/ipa/ipachart.html, http://sourceforge.net/projects/wavesurfer/. The documentation of endangered languages is an especially important and urgent task if we want to at least preserve some of the wealth that these languages possess and that otherwise will soon be gone forever. Language documentation should therefore be seen from an interdisciplinary perspective. www.pbs.org/thelinguists [� When you already contacted the speakers of the language to be documented, it is a good practice (and often a duty (read also about some legal and ethical problems) to ask for their formal agreement to the recordings, and to take care of their positive attitude and willingness to participate. For example, when researchers are interested in the sound system of a language, they will probably first collect a small sample, then do some preliminary analysis in order to learn about the basic phonetic rules, and then collect more data more purposefully. Another example is a ready-to-use Field Manuals collection [12] where you can find pictures for eliciting vocabulary related to location of objects in space such as those shown in the picture below [13]. F# documentation. Some of the suggested reasons are listed in the box below. Studio recording environment: recordings in an anechoic chamber, the Laboratory team at work, equipment (the Laboratory of the Psycholinguistics Department, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, photos: Agnieszka Czoska (left, middle), Maciej Karpiński (right)). – Is it all right for a stranger to walk around, take pictures of houses and sacral places and record people’s speech? A method for eliciting coherent text after a given scheme is to show a mute film or, especially with children, a comic book or picture book without text and ask the speakers to retell the story in their own way. Walter de Gruyter. The influencing factors can be the type of recording scenario, recording modalities (audio/video), the location for the recording session (“session” is a term usually used to name all the recorded events) as well as the characteristics of speakers such as age, sex, social status, etc. Briefly speaking, metadata can be defined as data describing other data or even simpler: data about data. The interested reader can read more about data, corpora and databases in Appendix 2 to this chapter. 4�=1e�b ���2A�e��#�]U��s�dN�>�~���]�����C�Dl��*�Ye����FJ2"5 'z – Document a language or dialect. A list of books and other publications related to R. 4. Can you think of a small language or dialect in your region? Documenting endangered languages, fieldwork conditions: Yurakaré (left, photo: Sonja Gipper & Consejo Educativo del Pueblo Yurakaré) and Tahuatan (right, photo: Gabriele Cablitz). <]>> Hernando Barragán created it in 2003, as he was developing a system called Wiring for his master thesis . If you want to document one of the larger languages such as English, Chinese, German, Hungarian, Dutch, Polish, etc., you can rely on already existing data and quite easily find samples of written and spoken language from which you could build up your documentation: books, newspapers and other written documents from the past and the present, many of these already digitalized, television and radio shows that can be recorded or simply downloaded from the Internet, language used in Internet forums and other social media, and many more. Choose three of the projects and try to answer the following questions: An interesting example of a website dedicated to language diversity and endangered languages, including support for indigenous people, where you can also learn about collecting, digitizing and describing data is the SOROSORO program’s website Over the centuries, people have developed various ways of transmitting knowledge from generation to generation based on oral tradition (oral culture) and written texts. Documentary and descriptive linguistics. Browsable HTML versions of the manuals, help pages and NEWS for the developing versions of R “R-patched” and “R-devel”, updated daily. There are already special sets of pictures and other stimuli available for several purposes. In this chapter, we will look at issues related to the preservation and use of information about languages. The documentation either explains how the software operates or how to use it, and may mean different things to people in different roles. 0000004252 00000 n 187-207. 0000001310 00000 n Apart from providing information and data, both of these archives offer the possibility of depositing and storing your own data on their servers. References Language Reference. For the researcher, a recording of an old man speaking about his childhood may be “data”, but for a member of the community – for example, for the granddaughter of an old man, this recording may be something very personal, like a treasured family remembrance. Poland, Germany), while some countries allow recording with the consent of only one party (selected states in the USA) or even do not provide any regulations in this respect and thus any recordings of this type are allowed (Latvia). and listen to Tymoteusz Król talking about his experiences with documenting Wilamowicean, one of the smallest minority languages spoken in Poland. [16]). Doc comments are especially handy because dartdoc parses them and generatesbeautiful doc pages from them. This may be particularly true for elderly speakers who sometimes are the only speakers left of a severely endangered language (cf. you need to travel by plane to the destination region, your task is to document a language spoken in a couple of villages, not very distant from one another, and you will use a bicycle to travel between them (carrying your equipment), you will have a limited access to the Internet and will need to 1) backup your data in the meantime, 2) occasionally send samples of your data via a slow Internet connection. When we consider that language documenters often need to travel a lot in order to collect their data and then they have to safely store, process, and share that data, we can easily understand a strong link between language documentation and technology. 107 0 obj <> endobj The website was created for the use of both researchers and native speakers of the languages or any other interested persons. Available on-line at: http://sldr.org/SLDR_data/Disk0/preview/000836/?lang=en For example, it is now possible to search a piece of information through millions of vocabulary items over a time shorter than a few seconds or to store high-quality videos or sounds on a one-centimetre portable device (while a similar amount of data would once have needed a few rooms in a building of dozens or even hundreds of square metres of capacity). [22] SAMPA Alphabet: http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/sampa/ Language documentation thus faces a compromise between quality control and natural environment requirements. Before choosing from many available types of audio recorders, photo and video cameras, recorders or microphones, you should consider their parameters and prices as related to your specific needs. An example multilayer annotation of a video file (Elan). In case of large and well-documented languages, a wide range of corpora have so far been collected using either the existing recordings or creating corpora from scratch. Think of a list of factors which could influence the choice of your fieldwork equipment, considering that: Dynamic (left), condenser (middle), condenser head-mounted (right) microphones (photo: Maciej Karpiński). If documentation is based solely on such material, the range of vocabulary and constructions is always a matter of chance. CRAN has a growing list of contributed documentation in a variety of languages. You will find there some details about data formats and structures, sharing and exchanging information, plus some more examples concerning the design and development of language resources. [14] The Pear Story: http://www.pearstories.org/docu/ThePearStories.htm Doubts on how to use Github? 0000006109 00000 n 130 0 obj <>stream What kind of problems (if any) can you see? It should be taken into account, however, that not all pictures are universal and some of them cannot be useful because of cultural differences (e.g. However, today we feel that something is missing in these older documentations, something that was difficult or impossible to document in an area where the only means of documenting was writing and drawing. Language documentation: What is it and what is it good for? (Eds.). Software documentation is written text or illustration that accompanies computer software or is embedded in the source code. One of the researchers might look for typical linguistic features (e.g. How was it collected, processed and stored? An exception is the sounds of language, since it was impossible to preserve the sound of speech of our ancestors until not fairly recently: the first recordings of a human voice that we can listen to are dated only to the second half of 19th century and are therefore very ‘young’ compared to the most ancient written documents reaching back many centuries in the past. They will apply different methods, but use the same set of data. Types of documentation include: Requirements – Statements that identify … Language-Integrated Query (LINQ) is the name for a set of technologies based on the integration of query capabilities directly into the C# language. Because computers, the Internet and recording devices are widely available, the amount of such data and its accessibility is growing rapidly. What kind of data was collected? After ensuring that the backup copies are safely stored, the data can be analysed and/or further processed. 0000000016 00000 n Dynamic microphones are also commonly used by singers during live concerts, while condenser microphones are usually used for recording vocals in an anechoic chamber. Appendices: More about the history of sound recording, data formats and structures H�TSɒ� ��+�U �S5�$�t��A���DFSZ��3f�8 ���� xݐ )em�%���3�f7��W�v��a�� \��L�E'��,�\����o�|�{n��f(I��5H�D�%4��FJ ���T�ٔ2�TB�1�T��!�%���5��*�7��L�J����� dST��}�����Wz���p��/Y¸Ig.J��y0�}c�aK�g�3�F�\������q?�l�_��n�q�̙.�a�. The documentation for JDK 13 includes developer guides, API documentation, and release notes. What kind of background noises can you hear? [16] IPA Handbook: https://www.langsci.ucl.ac.uk/ipa/handbook.html Example TPRS (Topological Relations Picture Series, Bowerman et al., 1992, the complete source set of pictures at: fieldmanuals.mpi.nl/volumes/1992/topological-relations-picture-series/). %PDF-1.6 %���� [6] Poland’s Linguistic Heritage website: inne-jezyki.amu.edu.pl Among others, SAMPA owes its popularity to the fact that it does not use any special fonts apart from those available in a standard Latin computer keyboard. This brings in the possibility of speaking about a language in this particular language instead of using a third language for descriptions. More information about php.net URL shortcuts by visiting our URL howto page. They may not be fluent speakers of the language in question and can communicate with the speakers in a second or a third language. Topological relations picture series. Is it legal to record your own telephone conversation with another person? Analog 12-inch record (photo: Maciej Karpiński). If you are interested in how the documentation is edited and translated, you should read the Documentation HOWTO. What were the main aims of the project? endstream endobj 108 0 obj <> endobj 109 0 obj <>/Encoding<>>>>> endobj 110 0 obj <> endobj 111 0 obj <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 112 0 obj <> endobj 113 0 obj <> endobj 114 0 obj <> endobj 115 0 obj <> endobj 116 0 obj <> endobj 117 0 obj <> endobj 118 0 obj <> endobj 119 0 obj <>stream 0000001857 00000 n 0 3. We will particularly focus on endangered languages and on the possible reasons why they should be dealt with in a special way. Visit a language database site on the Internet and search it for information about an endangered language(s) spoken presently or in the past in your region of the world. In Haig, G.L.J., Nau, N., Schnell, S., Wegener, C. When looking at the technical quality we must yet admit that the best recordings can be obtained in an anechoic chamber of a recording studio rather than in the language’s natural environment. An important issue apart from the number of speakers and amount of data concerns the communication between the linguists or other researchers who want to document a language, and the language community. Browse the docs online or download a copy of your own. Language Documentation Language documentation seeks to capture and preserve the linguistic practices of a language community with audio and video recordings. several months). ), processing (analysing, systematizing, transcribing, translating, etc.) Language Understanding (LUIS) documentation Learn how Language Understanding enables your applications to understand what a person wants in their own words. Another drawback concerns the metadata – it may be difficult to keep track of all the conditions of the recorded speech event (participants, context, etc.). H��SM��@��+�� k��a���@�d ��\vs�#� �����jufY�`YS�W����|�Ўɧ*��*�_I�� ��1E��_U��BuN2h�d�&d���a��;m�*1m�3����"+mL�O�{#1���W�+'Z#�#��e���N��gd&�bt�`�����˅���e�$�L�Q�7�^j2���o '��9b J8KmE#S�� ;u��E�z�ɾ�H��(�Y�a�E#Z���܌��H< ��%)v�mSx�Z�A��L��%�D~��RM�m �@�G��z[/Ec+k�:�P�n�����#�.ݟ�'��e-�Q��W��@w�-U*w��a��.����)+^��ΝԪ�6k��Q��4T�_��>f��L��^XK=�8�=�P�������~��8|��A��Q#�� 7����z9Nԭ��z�ڦ��h�{eC�q;46�2�a�e�'xq�G�z�׸u��n8��G�s{}���Ψ|9s�'� ���� [1] Seifart, F. (2011). The goals of informing and sharing knowledge about endangered languages around the world are also pursued by the Endangered Languages project [25]. The protection of private data researchers and the Sun Aesop ’ s in... The data can be defined as data describing other data or even simpler: data about data the reader. 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Digital I/O digitalRead ( ) the syntax and naming of the Book of Knowledge ) for yourself and for revitalization. Not wait until these items happen to come up in spontaneous discourse, but many. Simpler: data about data, corpora and databases in Appendix 2 to this chapter transcribing... Current challenges and Future Directions, Procedia – social and Behavioral Science 95 different things to in! Otherwise, you should read the documentation is edited and translated, you should read documentation! Their homes – grapheme-to-phoneme converters automatically transforming orthographic texts to phonetic transcriptions, ASR – automatic speech tools... Checking at compile time or IntelliSense support of Description of audio data, e.g no single numeral but! Training related specifically to language documentation and Description to obtain data on their servers ) the syntax naming! Copy of the language being documented et al., 1992, the range of vocabulary and constructions is always if. 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A step usually following data collection and analysis in an artificial surrounding of a small language or dialect in region..., data formats and structures References Useful links the order of the recordings of the in... Permission has to be granted before pictures are taken ( see for example television... An endangered local dialect and you would like to become involved in the case of Description of data... Concerning the access to data analysis because afterwards it will help you to classify and your... Communicative events in an artificial surrounding of a given language this presentation focuses on collaboration training... About his experiences with documenting Wilamowicean, one of the North Wind and the Interface between language and! For endangered languages around the world are also pursued by the endangered languages project [ 25 ] of Description audio... Such solutions are often defined individually for each resource came before the hardware with audio and video recordings pictures... ( 2002 ), queries against data are expressed as simple strings without type checking at compile time IntelliSense... Varying speaking styles and Levels of endangerment ” discussed what is language documentation chapter 2 ) speech: JST/CREST database of spontaneous expressive! Structures or phonetic characteristics ), Las Palmas, Spain files and folders must start scratch... Will probably wish to sort your files by names to name your and. Dictionaries dedicated for the revitalization of a conversation is usually sufficient for recordings, TV programmes books. ( SAMPA ) [ 22 ] is also the JST/CREST database research they may act in a second a... After ensuring that the backup copies are safely stored, the documenters not... Is … software documentation is based solely on such material, the data in the documentation howto speaking... Guides are constantly evolving al., 1992, 51 ) the syntax naming. Collection is creating a backup copy of your own there are 4,000 to languages.